Assignment 2: Implement a Clock


Written by Pat Hanrahan; updated by Julie Zelenski

Due: Tuesday, January 29 at 6:00 pm

Goals

Your next assignment is to build a clock using a 4-digit 7-segment display.

The goals of this assignment are for you to:

Get started

Navigate to your copy of the cs107e.github.io repository and do a git pull to ensure you have the latest files.

As with previous assignments, we have created the assignment basic branch for you, so you just need to fetch the latest copy of the remote repository and checkout the branch:

$ cd cs107e_home/assignments
$ git fetch origin
$ git checkout assign2-basic
$ ls
Makefile apps     cstart.c gpio.h   start.s  timer.c
abort.c  assert.h gpio.c   memmap   tests    timer.h

Skim through each of the provided files to learn the overall structure of the project and review the skeletal starter code. The project includes a few magic files (memmap, start.s, and cstart.c) that are necessary for bare metal C programs. We will be explaining their purpose in the upcoming lectures.

Modular design

For this assignment, you will implement functions across three different C files: gpio.c, timer.c, and apps/clock.c. The first two files implement reusable modules, the latter is the application program file. You should modify the starter code in the given files. Do not create any new source files or directories.

The gpio and timer modules provide access to two of the Raspberry Pi peripherals. The gpio module has routines that control the GPIO pins and the timer module retrieves the system tick count. The two modules are used specifically by the clock application, but, more broadly, these modules are designed to be reusable in any future application that requires similar functionality. These two modules are the first of many more to come. By the end of the quarter, you will have implemented a complete set of modules that you can package into a library of core functions for the Raspberry Pi.

A module is divided into an interface and its implementation. The module interface is laid out in its header file, e.g. gpio.h or timer.h. Each public function is listed with its name, prototype, and documentation about what the function does. The module implementation is in the corresponding .c file where those functions are defined.

For the gpio and timer modules, we specify the module interface; it is your job to write the module implementation to match it. You are not to change anything in the gpio.h and timer.h header files. All your edits will be in the corresponding C files. You shouldn’t export additional public gpio_ or timer_ functions. However, you can add your own private helper functions by declaring those functions at the top of the C file with the static keyword to make them only accessible to the implementation.

The file apps/clock.c contains your application program code that configures and operates your clock. The clock application does not directly access the peripherals, instead it calls on the public functions of the gpio and timer modules. There is no required interface for the clock application, but you should strive for a clean and well-decomposed program that would make your CS106 section leader proud.

The subsequent assignments in CS107e will be structured similarly. Each week you implement new modules to add your Raspberry Pi library in the context of an application program that uses those modules.

Testing

Now that you’re writing larger programs, we want to introduce you to strategies for how to test your program. We hope these ideas will serve you well throughout your programming life.

The starter project includes an additional program file tests/test_gpio_timer.c that defines an alternate main() function. Instead of running the clock, this main() function makes a series of calls to gpio and timer functions and uses assert() in order to validate the operations work correctly. Use make test to build and run this test program.

Recall from Lab 2 how assert() drives the red and green LEDs on the Pi as a simple status indicator. If an assert fails, the program halts and blinks the red LED of doom. If all asserts pass and the program finishes normally and the green LED of happiness will turn on. Your goal is to make that little green light shine!

The given tests/test_gpio_timer.c only has a few very simple tests. You should extend the test program with many additional tests of your own so as to thoroughly exercise the functionality of your modules. Unit-testing each module in isolation before going on to integrate its use into an application is an important strategy for taming the complexity of larger programs. The breadth and depth of the tests you add to tests/test_gpio_timer.c will be used to determine a portion of your grade for this assignment (that is, to get full credit on this assignment, you will need to include a thorough suite of tests as part of your submission).

Basic part: a simple clock

1. Wire up clock hardware

The first step is to build the hardware for your display.

2. Implement gpio module

Review Chapter 6 of the Broadcom BCM2835 peripheral manual which documents the GPIO peripheral. The device registers FSEL, SET, CLR and LEV will be used in your gpio module implementation.

Read our documentation in gpio.h to understand the module as a whole and the expected behavior of each function. Your functions must properly handle any sequence of valid calls. In addition, your functions should also be robust against client error. If asked to set an invalid pin or function, your function should reject the request rather than blunder on to wrong or broken behavior. The function documentation in the module interface gives specific guidance on the expected handling for improper calls.

We recommend that the first operations you implement are gpio_set_function and gpio_get_function. These operations control the mode of a GPIO pin by accessing the FSEL device registers. Thus far we have only seen the input and output modes, see the module interface for the additional alternate modes that you must support. Implement gpio_set_input and gpio_set_output as simple wrapper functions that call gpio_set_function to an input or output pin.

Before moving on, test what you’ve implemented. Edit the main() function of tests/test_gpio_timer.c to uncomment the call to test_gpio_set_get_function(). Run make test to build and execute the test program on the Pi. If the green LED on the Pi turns on, all tests ran successfully – bravo! If instead the Pi’s red LED is flashing, this means you are failing a test. If neither LED lights up, your program may be freezing or crashing somewhere during the tests.

If you don’t get the green light, comment out each assert within test_gpio_set_get_function(). Add the assets back one-by-one and re-run after each addition to determine which specific test is failing. Use that information to narrow in on your bug, fix it, and re-test until you achieve the green light of nirvana.

Passing these tests shows you’re off to a great start, but the provided test coverage is woefully incomplete. You will need to add many test cases of your own to definitively confirm the full correctness of your module. To jumpstart your brainstorming, consider what additional tests could be used to:

What other cases can you think of to add to the above? As you add each new test case, build and re-run your test program to verify success. Don’t move on until you are bathed in green light on your now-comprehensive test suite.

When writing test cases, take note that certain GPIO pins exhibit specialized behavior. GPIO pins 14 and 15 are used for serial transmission and by default have the function GPIO_FUNC_ALT5. Manipulating these pins will disrupt the communication between your computer and the Pi. You do not need to include pins 14 and 15 in your tests. GPIO 35 controls the red power LED on the Pi and GPIO 47 the green ACT LED. If you manipulate these pins, the corresponding LED will be affected. This is to be expected.

The remaining gpio functions to implement are gpio_write and gpio_read. These functions read and write the current pin state by accessing the SET, CLR, and LEV device registers.

After you’ve implemented these functions, test them by uncommenting the call to test_gpio_read_write() in the main() function of tests/test_gpio_timer.c. Re-run the test program, look for the green light, and make necessary fixes until you achieve success.

As noted earlier, the test coverage provided in the starter code is trivial and shallow. It is up to you to add further test cases to achieve thorough coverage. The test cases used by the automated tester in grading are quite rigorous. Rather than wait for our grading tests to ferret out issues for you to fix, the challenge goal for you is to find and fix any problems before you submit. We want your code to sail through grading with flying colors.

Congratulations on completing your first Raspberry Pi module!

A note on volatile: The implementation of a modules that interacts with a peripheral will require proper understanding of the volatile keyword. Remember from lecture that adding volatile to a declaration indicates that this value could change unexpectedly. Consider this pointer to the memory-mapped GPIO device register LEV0:

unsigned int *lev = (unsigned int *)0x20200034;

The data at that address can, and should, be qualified as volatile:

volatile unsigned int *lev = (volatile unsigned int *)0x20200034;

Adding the volatile qualifier informs the compiler that the unsigned int value can change due to events not apparent in the code. The Level register indicates whether an input pin has value 0 or 1. That value depends on what is physically connected to the pin, which can change externally. If every iteration of a loop in C reads from *lev and there is no intervening write to that location inside the loop, the optimizer could move the read operation outside the loop and only execute it once, on the assumption that the value will not change. If the data is declared volatile, the compiler cannot make that assumption and must re-read the value for each and every access.

Note that volatile is not something to throw about willy-nilly. It should added thoughtfully and intentionally to those specific data values that need to be treated in this special manner. Extraneous use of volatile can be misleading and will reduce performance as it disallows the compiler from making available optimizations.

3. Display a digit

For your next task, turn your attention to the clock application and put your shiny new gpio module to work to drive the 7-segment display.

In apps/clock.c, create an array of 16 elements, one for each hexadecimal value between 0 and 15. Each array element should be a byte (8-bits). Bit 0 (the least significant) will represent segment A, bit 1 segment B, and so on. If a bit is set, then that segment should be lit. For example, digit 0 consists of segments A-F, so its bit pattern is 0b00111111. Digit 1 consists of just segments B and C, so its bit pattern is 0b00000110. (0b is what you put in front of a binary number literal, just as you’d put 0x in front of a hexadecimal literal.)

Bit 7 (the most significant) will be used to represent DP, the dot. Since we won’t be using the dot in this assignment, bit 7 should always be 0.

Create bit patterns for all the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F. You won’t be displaying A-F for this assignment, but they may be useful in the future.

Add code to the main() function of apps/clock.c to display a single digit. Verify that your bit patterns are correct by displaying each digit value from 0 to 9. Use make install to build and run your clock application.

4. Implement timer module

In order to implement a clock, we’ll need some way to determine the passage of time. Thankfully, the Raspberry Pi includes a “system timer”. The system timer is an on-board peripheral that is initialized to zero when the Pi powers up and is continuously incremented once every microsecond behind the scenes. Chapter 12 of the Broadcom BCM2835 Peripherals Manual contains the documentation for the system timer peripheral.

The timer module defines functions that access the system timer. Read the interface to the module in the timer.h header. Review the given code for the module implementation in timer.c.

Your one task for the timer module is to implement the function timer_get_ticks to read the current system tick count from the system timer.

For this module, note that we only care about the lower 32-bits of the system timer. Don’t forget that we use ARM physical addresses, not bus addresses (0x7E… for peripherals), so you’ll need to change the 0x7E… prefix in any peripheral address to 0x20.

Uncomment the call test_timer() in tests/test_gpio_timer.c. Use make test to build and re-run the test program. Verify the given tests succeed and then consider what additional tests are needed for the timer module (there may not be much; it is a pretty simple module). Once both the gpio and timer modules are passing all of your tests, you’re ready to tackle the rest of the clock application.

5. Write display refresh loop

GPIO pins 20 to 26 drive the seven segments A to G. Segments A to G are shared by all four digits on the display. There is another, different set of pins that control which digit is currently active. There is no way to turn on the display segments to show a 5 on the leftmost digit while simultaneously showing a 3 on the rightmost digit.

Instead, you will write a display refresh loop that drives the four digits by iterating over the digits one-by-one in quick succession. It turns on the segments for the leftmost digit, waits a short length of time, and turns off that digit, then repeats the process for each of the other three digits. You might think that turning a digit on and off would cause it to flicker. The key is to sequence through the digits so fast that our eyes cannot see them changing. Good thing computers are fast!

Implement the display refresh loop in apps/clock.c. Use the functions from the timer module to control the wait time. Loop though all four digits, turning each on for 2500 microseconds. Do you see any flicker?

6. Implement clock

In the basic assignment, the clock should display the minutes and seconds that have elapsed since the clock program began executing.

The clock displays zero when the program begins. The inner loop continually refreshes the display, updating the value displayed to match the elapsed time. Make sure to test that the timer is calibrated correctly so the clock is running at the right rate.

Note that the clock time is counting elapsed time since the clock program started, which is not quite the same value as the system tick count. Clock time and the system tick count change at the same rate, but start at different values. Your program will need to implement this logic.

Click the photo below for a short video of our Raspberry Pi clock counting from 51 to 53 seconds:

Mission accomplished! Follow our submit instructions and it’s time to celebrate. You have wired up a complex breadboard circuit, written two reusable library modules and a clock application, as well as working up a methodology for thoroughly testing your code. Be sure show off your spiffy new clock to your followers (but probably not such a good idea to try to get on an airplane with it…).

Extension: Set time

If you’re looking for an extra challenge, consider doing the optional extension to create an interface to set the clock time.

After you have submitted your basic version, create an extension branch with

$ git checkout -b assign2-extension

Add two buttons (one red and one blue) to your clock breadboard. Connect GPIO pin 2 to the red button and GPIO pin 3 to the blue. Design a user interface that allows you to set the time using these buttons. You should be able to set the minutes and seconds separately. Strive for an interface design that is easy to use and that works even after the clock starts running. It can be challenging to build an interface with just a few buttons! Commit a README.md file to your repository that explains to the user how to set the time via the red and blue buttons.

When reading button presses on the Pi, you will quickly realize that pressing the button once may cause the value on the GPIO pin to change multiple times. This is due to physical characteristics of the button mechanism which cause the button circuit to open and close multiple times during a press. To address this issue, implement debouncing by checking whether the value change on the GPIO pin corresponds to an actual button press or one of these spurious events. This can be done by checking that the GPIO pin reads the button press value for a long enough time (that is, these spurious events will change the GPIO value quickly, meaning if you check the value of the pin as pressed, then wait a bit longer and see it as unpressed, that means it was a spurious event). Experiment with the amount of time required to register a valid press so that your buttons click easily without having to hold them down too long, but do not generate extra button press events for a single physical button press.

Want to go beyond the set-time extension to implement an additional advanced feature of your own design? Maybe a stopwatch, a countdown timer, using the display as a scrolling banner, or…. surprise us!

Be sure to clearly document your extension(s) in a README.md file committed on your assign2-extension branch so that your grader can test out your work.

Magic files

The starter project contains additional code files start.s and cstart.c and the file memmap. The memmap file is used by the linker when building the program and start.s and cstart.c provide the minimum startup to set up a C program to run in the bare metal environment. A bit later in the course, we will study these files to understand how they work and why they are necessary. Feel free to look into the files now to get a sneak preview, but don’t worry if you don’t fully understand them yet. We will discuss them in more detail soon!

Submit

The deliverables for assign2-basic are:

Submit the finished version of your assignment by making a git “pull request”, following the steps given in the Assignment 0 writeup. Remember to make separate pull requests for your basic and extension submissions.

We will use our automated tester to test your modules. To promote the practice of fixing bugs in your code, you will be granted the opportunity to fix bugs reported by the automated tester for a partial refund (you can gain back up to half the points deducted). Furthermore, fixing bugs in your modules now will put you in a better place to earn the full system bonus at the end of the quarter (bonus points awarded for submitting a working system using entirely your own code written for assignments).

The automated tester will deduct half a point for any warnings generated when compiling your code. Warnings are the way the compiler draws attention to a code passage that isn’t an outright error but appears suspect. Some warnings are mild/harmless, but others are critically important. If you get in the habit of keeping your code compiling cleanly, you’ll never miss a crucial message in a sea of warnings you are casually ignoring. You may want to consider adding the flag -Werror to CFLAGS in your Makefile. This converts all warnings into hard errors, which block the build and thus guarantee no warnings will be overlooked and left unresolved.